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Caracas is the capital and largest city of Venezuela. Important industries in Caracas include chemicals, textiles, leather, food, iron and wood products. Caracas is a regional centre for the distribution of products.Venezuela is in Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana. The climate is tropical, hot and humid, but more moderate in the highlands.The official language is Spanish. Many local professionals speak English, knowledge of Spanish is appreciated and particularly useful. The main religion is Christianity.The economy of Venezuela is dominated by the petroleum sector accounting for roughly a third of GDP, around 80% of exports and more than half of government revenues. Gold, diamonds and iron ore are mined as well. Venezuela contains some of the largest oil and natural gas reserves in the world. It consistently ranks among the top ten crude oil producers in the world. Food shortages, violence and political crisis have escalated to new extremes. Venezuela’s economy in 2018 is collapsing with hyperinflation at levels unmatched anywhere else in the world. The IMF projects inflation will reach 13,000% this year and the economy will shrink 15%. Cost of living reports for Venezuela should be used with caution until the current hyperinflation and currency collapse is resolved.Expatriate business dress is conservative and formal. Venezuelans are very fashionable. Nice suits are respected.The security risk for expatriates in Venezuela is medium but high in Caracas and near the Colombian border. Risks include opportunistic street and petty crime, violent crime (kidnapping, carjacking and armed robberies), and high risk of express kidnapping in the main urban areas, such as Caracas and Maracaibo, and in areas close to the Colombian border. Other risks include very high inflation, tight government controls on foreign exchange, the poor state of the economy and infrastructure, regular protest action, and shortages of basic items.The currency of Venezuela is the Venezuelan Bolivar Fuerte (VEF). Strict currency exchange controls are in place. There are two official exchange rates. Only use official currency exchange. It is illegal to exchange money on the black market. It is difficult to change Bolivars to US dollars. ATMs have low limits for cash withdrawals using international cards. Credit card fraud and cards being cloned is common.Medical facilities vary in quality. In large cities, private clinics are generally good for routine treatment but often experience shortages of medicine. Serious or complex medical treatment may require evacuation which can be expensive. Dengue fever and malaria are present. Cases of Chikungunya virus and Zika virus have been reported. The population of Caracas is 2.9 Million (Metro) (2019 est.), while the inflation rate (CPI) is 39113.8% for Venezuela as at September 2019.Xpatulator Hypothetical Tax for Venezuela is based on the current personal income tax rates which are progressive up to 34%.