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Ashgabat is the capital and largest city of Turkmenistan. Ashgabat is primarily a government and administrative centre. The principal industries are cotton textiles and metal working.Turkmenistan is in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan. The climate is subtropical desert.The official language is Turkmen. It is of Turkic origin. The common inter-ethnic language is Russian, familiarity with it is useful. Few people speak English well, but a rapidly increasing number have a basic grasp of the language; interpreters can be hired locally. Turkish is also spoken. Under the Soviet Union, the Turkmen script was changed to Cyrillic. The authorities moved to a Latin alphabet based on Turkish since 1991, but Cyrillic is still occasionally used for some public notices such as road signs, street names and on some official forms. The main religion is Islam.Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, placing the country in the top 10-15 producers. It also possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources.Expatriate business dress is conservative, but more flexible during the hot summer months for comfort, while remaining modest.The security risk for expatriates in Turkmenistan is medium. Risks include poor road safety standards and road conditions, official restrictions on travel within the country (always carry passport/visa etc.), curfews, and the risk of state surveillance.The currency of Turkmenistan is the Turkmenistan New Manat (TMT). Turkmenistan is largely a cash-based economy. While ATMs are available in major urban areas not all international cards are accepted. Major credit cards are accepted at some shops and restaurants.Medical facilities are poor. Serious or complex medical treatment requires evacuation which can be expensive. Typhoid and hepatitis A are endemic.The population of Ashgabat is 1 Million (2019 est.), while the inflation rate (CPI) is 9.4% for Turkmenistan as at December 2018.Xpatulator Hypothetical Tax for Turkmenistan is based on the current personal income tax rate which is a flat rate of 10%.