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Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The economy of Sarajevo has been subject to reconstruction and rehabilitation programs after years of war. Amongst other economic landmarks, the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina opened in Sarajevo in 1997 and the Sarajevo Stock Exchange began trading in 2002. The city's large manufacturing, administration, and tourism base, combined with a large informal market, makes it one of the strongest economic regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina.Bosnia and Herzegovina are in South Eastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia. The climate is hot in summer and cold in winter. Areas of higher altitude have short, cool summers and long, severe winters, while lower down along the coast, the winters are mild and rainy.The official language is Serbo-Croat but been replaced by Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. The most commonly spoken west-European languages are English and German. Before the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks), Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs were considered to speak variants of the same language, Serbo-Croat. Following the 1992-95 war, the ethnic communities have tended to emphasise their own national language by stressing slight linguistic differences. Croats and Bosnians use the Latin alphabet, while Serbs use the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. Embassies can recommend reputable Serbo-Croat translators. The main religions are Christianity and Islam.The economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina faces the dual problem of rebuilding a war-torn country and introducing market reforms to its formerly centrally-planned economy. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are generally small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry is mostly overstaffed, a holdover from the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia.Bosnia and Herzegovina is characterised by its ethnic and religious diversity. Expatriates should be sensitive to all the various customs and traditions. Business meetings are often relatively informal. Expatriate business dress is generally formal and conservative, particularly for women in Muslim areas of the country.The security risk for expatriates in Bosnia and Herzegovina is low. Risks include sporadic incidents of ethnically-motivated violence, petty and opportunistic crimes, especially in the capital Sarajevo.The currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the Bosnian Mark (BAM). Most transactions are in cash. ATMs are generally available in the larger cities.Medical facilities, particularly outside Sarajevo and major towns are limited. The population of Sarajevo is 555,200 (Metro) (2019 est.), while the inflation rate (CPI) is 0.1% for Bosnia and Herzegovina as at October 2019.Xpatulator Hypothetical Tax for Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the current personal income tax rate which is a flat rate of 10%.