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International Expatriate Hardship Premiums October 2012

Hardship refers to the relative difference an expatriate and their family are likely to experience and the relative impact on their lifestyle when moving between different locations. Xpatulator's hardship ranking system measures the relative quality of living in each locations, and assesses the level of difficulty that will be experienced in adapting to each location.

Hardship factors include-:

  • Economic Factors: Such as poverty levels and level of service provision
  • Political Factors: Such as freedom/tolerance towards different points of view / lifestyle
  • Religious Factors: Such as freedom/tolerance towards different religions
  • Public Service Factors: Such as provision of water, electricity, sanitation, work permits etc
  • Environment/Climate Factors: Such as extreme weather
  • Personal Safety Factors: Such as personal safety / level of crime
  • Health Factors: Such as prevalence of disease and health standards
  • Education Factors: Such as education standards, prevalence of international schools
  • Transportation Factors: Such as prevalence of public transport, fuel and road safety.

In assessing how much to pay an expatriate, it is important to take into account the relative hardship, in terms of quality of living conditions between locations, and assesses the relative level of difficulty that will be experienced in adapting to a new location.

The Xpatulator.com international expatriate hardship premiums by country as at October 2012:

  • Afghanistan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Albania Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Algeria Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Angola Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Anguilla Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Antigua and Barbuda Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Argentina Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Armenia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Aruba Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Australia Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Austria Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Azerbaijan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Bahamas Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Bahrain Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Bangladesh Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Barbados Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Belarus Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Belgium Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Belize Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Benin Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Bermuda Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Bhutan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Bolivia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Botswana Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Brazil Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • British Virgin Islands Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Brunei Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Bulgaria Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Burkina Faso Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Burundi Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Cambodia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Cameroon Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Canada Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Cape Verde Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Cayman Islands Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Central African Republic Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Chad Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Chile Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • China Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Colombia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Comoros Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Congo Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Congo Democratic Rep Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Cook Islands Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Costa Rica Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Cote D'Ivoire Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Croatia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Cuba Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Cyprus Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Czech Republic Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Denmark Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Djibouti Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Dominica Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Dominican Republic Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Ecuador Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Egypt Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • El Salvador Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Equatorial Guinea Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Eritrea Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Estonia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Ethiopia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Falkland Islands Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Fiji Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Finland Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • France Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • French Guiana Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • French Polynesia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Gabon Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Gambia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Georgia Republic of Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Germany Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Ghana Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Greece Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Greenland Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Grenada Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Guadeloupe Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Guam Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Guatemala Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Guernsey Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Guinea Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Guinea-Bissau Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Guyana Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Haiti Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Honduras Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Hungary Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Iceland Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • India Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Indonesia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Iran Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Iraq Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Ireland Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Isle of Man Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Israel Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Italy Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Jamaica Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Japan Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Jersey Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Jordan Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Kazakhstan Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Kenya Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Kiribati Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Korea Democratic Republic of Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Korea Republic of Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Kosovo Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Kuwait Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Kyrgyzstan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Laos Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Latvia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Lebanon Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Lesotho Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Liberia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Libya Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Liechtenstein Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Lithuania Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Luxembourg Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Macedonia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Madagascar Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Malawi Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Malaysia Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Maldives Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Mali Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Malta Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Marshall Islands Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Martinique Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Mauritania Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Mauritius Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Mexico Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Micronesia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Moldova Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Mongolia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Montenegro Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Montserrat Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Morocco Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Mozambique Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Myanmar Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Namibia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Nauru Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Nepal Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Netherlands Antilles Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Netherlands Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • New Caledonia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • New Zealand Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Nicaragua Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Niger Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Nigeria Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Northern Mariana Islands Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Norway Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Oman Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Pakistan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Palau Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Palestinian Territories Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Panama Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Papua New Guinea Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Paraguay Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Peru Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Philippines Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Poland Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Portugal Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Puerto Rico Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Qatar Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Reunion Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Romania Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Russia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Rwanda Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Saint Helena Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Saint Lucia Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Samoa Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Sao Tome and Principe Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Saudi Arabia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Senegal Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Serbia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Seychelles Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Sierra Leone Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Singapore, Singapore Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Slovakia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Slovenia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Solomon Islands Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Somalia Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • South Africa Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • South Sudan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Spain Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Sri Lanka Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Sudan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Suriname Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Swaziland Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Sweden Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Switzerland Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Syria Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Taiwan Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Tajikistan Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Tanzania Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Thailand Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Timor-Leste Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Togo Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Tonga Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Trinidad and Tobago Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Tunisia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Turkey Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Turkmenistan Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Turks and Caicos Islands Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Tuvalu Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Uganda Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Ukraine Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • United Arab Emirates Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • United Kingdom Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • Uruguay Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • USA Rated 1 (minimal hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 10% salary premium
  • US Virgin Islands Rated 2 (some hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 20% salary premium
  • Uzbekistan Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Vanuatu Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Venezuela Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Vietnam Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Yemen Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium
  • Zambia Rated 3 (high degree of hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 30% salary premium
  • Zimbabwe Rated 4 (extreme hardship). Expatriates typically paid a 40% salary premium

 


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