International Cost of living - Ranking - April 2011.
Rising grocery and oil prices are impacting the low income earners most severely, but are also likely to impact expatriate purchasing power.
Lower income earners spend a larger percentage of their income on groceries and transport. The world’s poorest consumers spend a large proportion of their income, around 50 to 70 percent, on food and have limited capacity to adjust quickly to rapid price increases. In places like Egypt, Tunisia and Libya this has contributed to political unrest. At the expatriate level the impact will also be felt as up to 16% of their income is spent on groceries and 18% on transport.
International maize and wheat prices have nearly doubled from June 2010 and March 2011, and dairy product prices have also risen. High food inflation is affecting many developing countries, including those that are home to large numbers of poor people. For example, food inflation was 10 percent in China and 18 percent in India year on year between December 2009 and 2010, mostly driven by higher prices of meat, fish, eggs, dairy, vegetables, and fruits.
According to United Nations' Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), global average prices of foodstuffs, including rice, wheat, meat and maize had increased by 25% in the international basket in 2010, compared with the December 2009 levels.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF)'s statistics, on the other hand, show commodity prices rising by an average of 33% over the past one year, with metal prices rising by an average of 40%, energy prices 30%, and crude oil prices 31%. Global food prices, according to the IMF, have risen 61% from December 2008.
Commodities such as coffee, sugar and cocoa prices are predicted to rise as much as 10-fold by 2014 because of shortages according to Aaron Smith, managing director of Superfund USA Inc.
The earthquake/tsunami disaster and nuclear crisis in Japan, which has disrupted the supply chain and increased Japanese demand for raw materials and untainted food, is likely to put further strain on the inflation problem facing the world.
Oil prices have surged 15 percent this year as output from Libya slumped. The armed conflict has forced companies to suspend operations and evacuate staff. Oil has been trading at over $100 a barrel in recent times. Deutsche Bank has raised its oil price forecast for 2011 by 16 percent to $117.50 a barrel, citing declining spare capacity in Saudi Arabia and unrest in the Middle East.
Rising food and energy prices lead to rising inflation. Chinese inflation was 4.9 percent in the year to February 2011, and looks likely to climb above 5% in coming months. Inflation in the 17-nation euro region quickened to 2.6 percent from 2.4 percent in February, the fastest in more than two years. South Korea's inflation rate hit a 27-month high of 4.5% in February, driven by rising food and fuel costs.
It is likely that the spike in inflation will increase employee expectations for salary increases that preserve their purchasing power and for companies to increase their prices, resulting in an inflationary cycle. This will however be offset to a large degree in economies with high unemployment rates, and where economies are running below capacity, such as the USA and the UK.
The cost of living for an expatriate is affected by both the availability and prices, of goods and services representative of an expatriate lifestyle, local inflation, and the exchange rate between the home and host country. As a result the cost of living has a significant impact on an expatriate’s salary package.
Based on data collected before the earthquake and tsunami, Japan has 3 cities in the top 8 most expensive in the world. None of the 3 cities (Tokyo, Yokohama, and Osaka) were directly impacted by the tsunami, but it is likely the cost of living in Japan will rise further depending on the strength of the Japanese Yen going forward. Tokyo remains the costliest city in the world, for expatriates, to live in as at April 2011, out of 300 global locations, surveyed during the period 1 January to 31 March 2011.
Caracas is the second most expensive city to live in. Caracas is most expensive place in the world for furniture and appliances, alcohol & tobacco, hotels restaurants and meals out. Caracas is the second most expensive place for groceries, recreation and culture, and healthcare.
Hong Kong is the third most expensive city in the world for expatriates to live in. The high overall cost of living rank for Hong Kong is primarily a result of two expensive basket groups. Hong Kong is the third most expensive city in the world for healthcare, and is the most expensive city in the world for household accommodation, which typically comprises 30% of an expatriate’s expenses. Hong Kong is a good example of why many international organizations compensate separately for healthcare as well as household related costs such as housing rental, water, electricity, household gas, household fuels, local rates and residential taxes. Items that are provided by the employer should be excluded from a cost of living index calculation. The cost of living index for Hong Kong excluding healthcare and household related costs is substantially lower than it’s overall cost of living index of 136.06. Hong Kong is relatively cheap for recreation & culture (ranked 237 in the world), education (ranked 255 in the world), as well as furniture & appliances (ranked 276 in the world).
Geneva, the fourth most expensive city, and Zurich, ranked fifth, are particularly expensive for transport, recreation & culture, hotels restaurants and meals out, healthcare as well as groceries.
Asia-Pacific has 4 of the 10 most expensive cities in the world. Tokyo is first and Hong Kong the third most expensive location in the world (and most expensive in greater China), whilst Osaka is the third most expensive city in Asia-Pacific (ranked 6 in the world), followed by Nagoya (ranked 8 in the world). Australia now has 3 of the top 10 most expensive cities in Asia-Pacific, Sydney has moved up to fifth, followed by Canberra seventh and Melbourne tenth.
Cities in mainland China remain relatively cheap, mainly due to the pegging of the Chinese Yuan to the US Dollar which has kept costs down. Within mainland China, Shanghai (ranked 18 in the world), and Beijing (ranked 116 in the world) are the most expensive locations. The cheapest city surveyed in China is Tianjin (ranked 278) with a cost of living index of just 63.59. The cheapest city in Asia-Pacific is Phnom Penh in Cambodia (ranked 298) with a cost of living index of 55.4.
Most expensive cities in Asia-Pacific (Global rank in brackets)
1. Japan, Tokyo (1)
2. China, Hong Kong (3)
3. Japan, Osaka (6)
4. Japan, Nagoya (8)
5. Australia, Sydney (12)
6. Japan, Yokohama (13)
7. Australia, Canberra (15)
8. China, Shanghai (18)
9. Vanuatu, Port Vila (21)
10. Australia, Melbourne (22)
South Asia is the least expensive region in the world for expatriates to live in. The most expensive city surveyed is Mumbai (ranked 123 in the world), followed by New Delhi (ranked 157), and Chennai (ranked 160). The cheapest city in South Asia, and in the world, is Thimphu in Bhutan (ranked 300).
Most expensive cities in South Asia (Global rank in brackets)
1. India, Mumbai (123)
2. India, New Delhi (157)
3. India, Chennai (160)
4. India, Calcutta (161)
5. Sri Lanka, Colombo (168)
6. India, Hyderabad (169)
7. Maldives, Male (181)
8. India, Bangalore (183)
9. Afghanistan, Kabul (221)
10. Nepal, Kathmandu (275)
Europe’s most expensive cities are mostly those that are not on the Euro. The most expensive city in Europe is Geneva (ranked 4 in the world), followed by Zurich (ranked 5), making Switzerland the most expensive country in Europe. Zurich is followed by Vaduz in Liechtenstein (ranked 9). The cheapest city in Europe is Tirana in Albania (ranked 284 in the world) with a cost of living index of 62.4.
Most expensive cities in Europe (Global rank in brackets)
1. Switzerland, Geneva (4)
2. Switzerland, Zurich (5)
3. Liechtenstein, Vaduz (9)
4. Norway, Oslo (10)
5. Denmark, Copenhagen (16)
6. Russia, Moscow (17)
7. United Kingdom, London (20)
8. Monaco, Monaco (26)
9. France, Paris (27)
10.Jersey, Saint Helier (29)
The Middle East's most expensive city is Abu Dhabi (ranked 45 in the world), followed by Doha (ranked 59), and Israel (ranked 93). Bahrain is the fourth most expensive city in the Middle East (ranked 97 in the world) with a cost of living index of 90.4. The cheapest city surveyed in the Middle East is Sanaa in Yemen (ranked 299 in the world) with a cost of living index of 53.1.
Most expensive cities in the Middle East (Global rank in brackets)
1. United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi (45)
2. Qatar, Doha (59)
3. Israel, Jerusalem (93)
4. Bahrain, Manama (97)
5. Lebanon, Beirut (104)
6. United Arab Emirates, Dubai (115)
7. Iran, Tehran (148)
8. Palestinian Territories, West Bank (154)
9. Syria, Damascus (174)
10. Saudi Arabia, Riyadh (190)
The Americas most expensive city is Caracas, which is the world’s second most expensive city to live in for expatriates.
Brazil has 3 of the 4 most expensive cities in the Americas. Sao Paulo (ranked 7 in the world), Rio de Janeiro (ranked 11) are followed by Brasilia (ranked 14). Toronto (ranked 35) is the fifth most expensive city. New York (ranked 43) is the eighth most expensive city in the America’s and most expensive in the United States of America. Interestingly Canada now has 3 cities in the top 10 most expensive cities in the Americas. The cheapest city to live in the Americas is La Paz in Bolivia (ranked 294 in the world). The cheapest city surveyed in the United States of America is Indianapolis Ind (ranked 282 in the world).
Most expensive cities in the Americas (Global rank in brackets)
1. Venezuela, Caracas (2)
2. Brazil, Sao Paulo (7)
3. Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (11)
4. Brazil, Brasilia (14)
5. Canada, Toronto (35)
6. Falkland Islands, Stanley (36)
7. Bahamas, Nassau (41)
8. USA, New York NY (43)
9. Canada, Vancouver (51)
10. Canada, Calgary (61)
Figures used in this report were taken from Xpatulator.com’s cost of living database as at 1 April 2011. The above ranks are based on the overall cost of living index using all 13 basket groups with New York as the base city (Cost of living index = 100).
About Xpatulator.com’s Cost of Living Data
Xpatulator.com’s cost of living data is based on prices for the same quantity and quality of goods and services, representative of expatriate lifestyle, in each city. The data is collected and updated on a quarterly basis. The cost of living data is used by Xpatulator.com clients to calculate salary purchasing power parity, cost of living allowances, and customized (i.e. clients can select their own base city) cost of living indexes for expatriate assignments online, using Xpatulator.com’s 3 premium content calculators.
The 13 basket groups do not count equally and are weighted according to expatriate expenditure norms as follows (weighting percentage is in brackets):
1. Alcohol & Tobacco (2%): Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.
2. Clothing (2.5%): Clothing and footwear products.
3. Communication (2%): Telephone, Internet, Mobile Contract and Calls.
4. Education (5%): Creche Fees, School Fees, College Fees, and Tertiary Study Fees.
5. Furniture & Appliances (5%): Furniture, household equipment and appliances.
6. Groceries (16.5%): Food, non-alcoholic beverages and cleaning materials.
7. Healthcare (5%): Doctor Consultation rates, Private Ward Rate, Prescription Medicine, and Private Medical Insurance Contributions.
8. Household (30%): Housing rental, utilities, local rates and residential taxes.
9. Miscellaneous (3%): Stationary, Linen and general goods and services.
10. Personal Care (3%): Personal Care products and services.
11. Recreation & Culture (6%): Books, Camera Film, Cinema Ticket, DVD and CD’s, Sports goods, Theatre Tickets.
12. Restaurants Meals Out and Hotels (2%): Dinner at Restaurant (non fast food), Hotel Rates, Take Away, Drinks & Snacks (fast Food).
13. Transport (18%): Public Transport, Vehicle Costs, Vehicle Fuel, Vehicle Insurance and Vehicle Maintenance.
Xpatulator.com is the most comprehensive source of international cost of living information. We provide free international cost of living overviews and rank information covering 13 cost of living baskets and 300 global locations as well as 3 premium content calculators.
Founded in 2007, Xpatulator.com’s mission is to organize the world’s cost of living indices, exchange rates and relative hardship indices and make it accessible and useful to all.
Premium Content Calculators:
Salary Purchasing Power Parity Calculator (SPPP): Download Demo SPPP Report
The SPPP report calculates how much you need to earn in another location to compensate for a higher cost of living, hardship, and the exchange rate, in order to have the same relative spending power and as a result have a similar standard of living as you have in your current location. Each new SPPP report uses 1 credit ($99). Recommended for a detailed comparison of 2 locations.
Cost of Living Allowance Calculator (COLA): Download Demo COLA Report
The COLA report calculates how much additional allowance (over and above your current salary) you need to earn in another location to compensate for a higher cost of living, hardship and the exchange rate, in order to have the same relative spending power and as a result have a similar standard of living as you have in your current location. Each new COLA report uses 1 credit ($99). Recommended for calculation of a cost of living allowance for short-term assignments.
Cost of Living Index Calculator (COLI) : Download Demo COLI Report
The COLI report calculates cost of living indexes for the host locations you select, using the home location you specify. You can choose from any one of the 13 baskets or you can choose the overall cost of living index. Each new COLI report uses 1 credit ($99) allowing you to choose 1 home location and up to 300 available host locations. Recommended for the calculation of 3 or more cost of living indexes using your choice of base city.
1 credit costs $99. Register, buy credits online and you can run the premium content calculators and receive your reports online within minutes.
For any queries: firstname.lastname@example.org
The full April 2011 list of all 300 international locations using all 13 basket groups is as follows:
April 2011 Rank Country, City
1 Angola, Luanda2 Angola, All Areas3 China, Hong Kong4 Singapore, Singapore5 Switzerland, Zurich6 Norway, Oslo7 Norway, All Areas8 Switzerland, Geneva9 Bermuda, Hamilton10 Japan, Tokyo11 USA, New York (Manhattan) NY12 Central African Republic, Bangui13 Monaco, Monaco14 Bermuda, All Areas15 Switzerland, All Areas16 USA, San Jose CA17 Denmark, Copenhagen18 Australia, Sydney19 Cayman Islands, All Areas20 China, Shanghai21 Japan, Yokohama22 Cayman Islands, George Town23 Sierra Leone, Freetown24 Denmark, All Areas25 Japan, Osaka26 USA, San Francisco CA27 Bahamas, Nassau28 USA, Honolulu HI29 Gabon, Libreville30 Japan, Nagoya31 Japan, Kobe32 Japan, Kyoto33 Eritrea, Asmara34 United Kingdom, London35 USA, New York NY36 Central African Republic, All Areas37 Australia, Canberra38 Japan, All Areas39 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Kingstown40 USA, New York (Brooklyn) NY41 Mozambique, Maputo42 Bahamas, All Areas43 Ghana, Accra44 France, Paris45 Congo, Brazzaville46 Montserrat, All Areas47 Saint Kitts and Nevis, Basseterre48 Australia, Melbourne49 Sudan, Khartoum50 Barbados, All Areas51 USA, Hawaii All Areas HI52 Antigua and Barbuda, Saint John's53 Liberia, Monrovia54 USA, New York (Queens) NY55 USA, Riverside City CA56 Solomon Islands, Honiara57 Barbados, Bridgetown58 Sierra Leone, All Areas59 Australia, Perth60 Liechtenstein, Vaduz61 British Virgin Islands, All Areas62 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, All Areas63 New Caledonia, Noumea64 Chad, N'Djamena65 China, Macao66 Grenada, Saint George's67 Korea Republic of, Seoul68 Sweden, Stockholm69 Russia, Moscow70 Turks and Caicos Islands, All Areas71 Australia, Brisbane72 Israel, Jerusalem73 New Zealand, Auckland74 Finland, Helsinki75 New Zealand, Wellington76 Ghana, All Areas77 Antigua and Barbuda, All Areas78 Anguilla, All Areas79 Canada, Toronto80 Saint Kitts and Nevis, All Areas81 Jersey, All Areas82 Jersey, Saint Helier83 Djibouti, Djibouti84 Guam, Hagatna85 Korea Republic of, Daegu86 Australia, All Areas86 Australia, Adelaide88 Greenland, All Areas89 Korea Republic of, Incheon90 Martinique, Fort-de-France91 New Zealand, All Areas92 Canada, Vancouver93 US Virgin Islands, All Areas94 Chad, All Areas95 Mozambique, All Areas96 Israel, All Areas97 Qatar, Doha98 Greenland, Nuuk99 Austria, Vienna100 Liechtenstein, All Areas101 Comoros, Moroni102 Jamaica, All Areas103 French Polynesia, Papeete104 Korea Republic of, Busan105 New Caledonia, All Areas106 South Sudan, All Areas107 Luxembourg, Luxembourg108 Grenada, All Areas109 China, Beijing110 Finland, All Areas111 USA, Orange County CA112 Germany, Munich113 USA, Nassau County NY114 Sudan, All Areas115 Brazil, Sao Paulo116 Jamaica, Kingston117 Somalia, Mogadishu118 Sweden, All Areas119 Luxembourg, All Areas120 United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi121 Congo, All Areas122 Iceland, Reykjavik123 Solomon Islands, All Areas124 Korea Republic of, All Areas125 Iceland, All Areas126 Qatar, All Areas127 Taiwan, Taipei128 Gabon, All Areas129 New Zealand, Christchurch130 Netherlands, Amsterdam131 Trinidad and Tobago, Port-of-Spain132 Guinea-Bissau, Bissau133 Dominica, Roseau134 Brazil, Rio de Janeiro135 Belgium, Brussels136 United Arab Emirates, Dubai137 Liberia, All Areas138 Djibouti, All Areas139 USA, Oakland CA140 Ireland, Dublin141 Guam, All Areas142 Argentina, Buenos Aires143 USA, California All Areas CA144 Germany, Frankfurt145 Canada, Calgary146 Italy, Rome147 USA, Washington-Arlington-Alexandria DC-VA148 Austria, All Areas149 USA, Alaska All Areas AK150 Martinique, All Areas151 Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby152 Comoros, All Areas153 Lebanon, Beirut154 Japan, Kawasaki155 USA, San Diego CA156 French Polynesia, All Areas157 Congo Democratic Rep, Kinshasa158 Nigeria, Lagos159 USA, Los Angeles-Long Beach CA160 Reunion, All Areas161 Belgium, All Areas162 Timor-Leste, Dili163 Guadeloupe, Basse-Terre164 Tanzania, Zanzibar165 Canada, Edmonton166 Sao Tome and Principe, Sao Tome167 Canada, All Areas168 Gibraltar, Gibraltar169 United Arab Emirates, All Areas170 Falkland Islands, Stanley171 Haiti, Port-au-Prince172 Syria, Damascus173 Palestinian Territories, West Bank174 Brazil, Brasilia175 Germany, Hamburg176 Germany, Stuttgart177 Eritrea, All Areas178 Japan, Fukuoka179 Zambia, Lusaka180 Canada, Montreal181 Palau, Melekeok182 USA, Seattle WA183 Guinea, Conakry184 Lebanon, All Areas185 Trinidad and Tobago, All Areas186 Samoa, Apia187 Falkland Islands, All Areas188 Argentina, Cordoba189 Ireland, All Areas190 Tuvalu, Funafuti191 USA, Anchorage AK192 France, Nice193 Maldives, Male194 Isle of Man, Douglas195 USA, Connecticut All Areas CT196 Germany, Cologne197 Germany, All Areas198 Marshall Islands, Majuro199 Taiwan, All Areas200 Uruguay, Montevideo201 USA, New York All Areas NY202 Malawi, Lilongwe203 Belize, Belmopan204 Korea Democratic Republic of, Pyongyang205 Puerto Rico, San Juan206 USA, Philadelphia PA207 Russia, Vladivostok208 Micronesia, Palikir209 Equatorial Guinea, Malabo210 Isle of Man, All Areas211 Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou212 USA, Boston MA213 Palestinian Territories, All Areas214 Japan, Sapporo215 United Kingdom, Bristol216 Maldives, All Areas217 Argentina, All Areas218 United Kingdom, Manchester219 USA, Hartford CT219 Timor-Leste, All Areas221 San Marino, San Marino221 Jordan, Amman223 Saint Helena, Jamestown224 Germany, Bonn225 Sao Tome and Principe, All Areas226 Saint Lucia, Castries227 Germany, Berlin228 United Kingdom, Glasgow229 Zambia, All Areas230 France, Marseille231 Senegal, Dakar232 Netherlands, Rotterdam233 Ethiopia, Addis Ababa234 Congo Democratic Rep, All Areas235 Tanzania, Dar es Salaam236 Fiji, Suva237 Guadeloupe, All Areas238 Nigeria, Kano239 Nigeria, Ibadan240 USA, Bergen-Passaic NJ241 Uruguay, All Areas242 Dominica, All Areas243 Netherlands, All Areas244 Turkmenistan, Ashgabat245 Netherlands Antilles, All Areas246 USA, New Haven CT247 France, Toulouse248 Mexico, Toluca249 United Kingdom, Aberdeen250 Oman, Muscat251 France, All Areas252 Malta, Valletta253 Vanuatu, Port Vila254 United Kingdom, Edinburgh255 Northern Mariana Islands, Saipan256 Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo257 French Guiana, Cayenne258 Zimbabwe, Harare259 Canada, Ottawa260 USA, Burlington-Chittenden Co VT261 USA, Dutchess County NY261 Samoa, All Areas263 USA, New Jersey All Areas NJ264 Burundi, Bujumbura265 Tuvalu, All Areas265 United Kingdom, Luton267 USA, Rhode Island All Areas RI268 Italy, Milan269 USA, Vermont All Areas VT270 France, Lyon271 USA, Massachusetts All Areas MA272 Guernsey, All Areas273 Italy, Genoa274 Jordan, All Areas275 Saint Helena, All Areas276 Cook Islands, Avarua277 Myanmar, Yangon278 Argentina, Rosario279 Aruba, All Areas280 France, Bordeaux281 Micronesia, All Areas282 Nauru, Yaren283 USA, Middlesex-Monmouth NJ284 Puerto Rico, All Areas285 Guernsey, St Peter Port285 USA, Manchester NH287 United Kingdom, Guildford288 Panama, Panama City289 United Kingdom, Stoke-on-Trent290 United Kingdom, Southampton291 China, Shenzhen292 Portugal, Lisbon293 Benin, Cotonou294 Malta, All Areas295 Mexico, Monterrey296 USA, New Hampshire All Areas NH297 Syria, All Areas298 Nigeria, All Areas299 Cameroon, Douala300 Equatorial Guinea, All Areas301 Guinea-Bissau, All Areas302 Saint Lucia, All Areas303 USA, Maryland All Areas MD304 United Kingdom, Milton Keynes305 Peru, Lima306 United Kingdom, Sheffield307 Bahrain, Manama308 Niger, Niamey309 Russia, St. Petersburg310 France, Nantes311 Brunei, Bandar Seri Begawan312 Brunei, All Areas313 Spain, Madrid314 Libya, Tripoli315 Saudi Arabia, Medinah316 Zimbabwe, All Areas317 United Kingdom, Reading318 Nigeria, Abuja319 Chile, Santiago320 USA, Chicago IL321 United Kingdom, Coventry322 United Kingdom, Liverpool323 Palau, All Areas324 United Kingdom, Northampton325 China, Wuhan326 Marshall Islands, All Areas327 Senegal, All Areas328 Kuwait, Kuwait City329 Saudi Arabia, Riyadh330 United Kingdom, All Areas331 United Kingdom, Portsmouth332 United Kingdom, Derby333 USA, Portland ME334 Spain, Barcelona335 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur336 United Kingdom, Newcastle upon Tyne337 USA, Maine All Areas ME338 Italy, Turin339 Laos, Vientiane340 USA, Sacramento CA341 Vanuatu, All Areas342 Suriname, Paramaribo343 Malaysia, Johor Bahru344 United Kingdom, Preston345 Estonia, Tallinn346 Costa Rica, San Jose347 United Kingdom, Bradford347 Italy, Naples349 USA, Fort Lauderdale FL350 Saudi Arabia, Dammam351 Tanzania, All Areas352 Seychelles, Victoria353 United Kingdom, Kingston upon Hull354 Belarus, Minsk355 United Kingdom, Leeds356 Czech Republic, Prague356 Somalia, All Areas358 Suriname, All Areas359 Panama, All Areas360 USA, Portland OR361 Brazil, Salvador362 Ethiopia, All Areas363 USA, Miami-Dade County FL364 Oman, All Areas365 Guatemala, Guatemala City366 USA, Baltimore MD367 USA, Bakersfield CA368 Belize, All Areas369 Russia, All Areas370 Malawi, All Areas371 USA, Oregon All Areas OR372 Bahrain, All Areas373 Fiji, All Areas374 United Kingdom, Birmingham375 United Kingdom, Wolverhampton376 USA, Las Vegas NV377 Madagascar, Antananarivo378 Peru, All Areas379 Kenya, Nairobi380 United Kingdom, Plymouth381 United Kingdom, Belfast382 Guinea, All Areas383 Brazil, All Areas384 Russia, Novosibirsk385 USA, Eugene OR386 Cote D'Ivoire, Abidjan387 Myanmar, All Areas388 Northern Mariana Islands, All Areas389 Cyprus, Nicosia390 United Kingdom, Cardiff391 USA, Fresno CA392 Italy, All Areas393 China, All Areas394 Italy, Palermo395 Nauru, All Areas396 Seychelles, All Areas397 Libya, All Areas398 United Kingdom, Nottingham399 Mexico, Mexico City400 Benin, All Areas401 United Kingdom, Leicester402 USA, Lancaster PA403 Spain, Valencia404 Dominican Republic, All Areas405 USA, Pennsylvania All Areas PA406 Thailand, Bangkok407 Brazil, Belo Horizonte408 Turkmenistan, All Areas409 Croatia, Zagreb410 USA, Nevada All Areas NV410 USA, Albany NY412 USA, Washington All Areas WA413 Saudi Arabia, Mecca414 Russia, Nizhny Novgorod415 USA, Minneapolis MN416 Bangladesh, Dhaka417 Malaysia, Subang Jaya417 Portugal, All Areas419 Cook Islands, All Areas420 Chile, All Areas420 United Kingdom, Isle of Wight422 Laos, All Areas423 USA, All Areas424 Mexico, Tijuana425 France, Lille426 Libya, Benghazi427 USA, Denver CO428 Uganda, Kampala429 Slovenia, Ljubljana430 USA, St. Paul MN431 USA, Cleveland OH432 Kuwait, All Areas433 Mexico, Leon434 Colombia, Bogota435 Indonesia, Jakarta436 Papua New Guinea, All Areas437 USA, Akron OH438 Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar439 Philippines, Manila440 Saudi Arabia, Jeddah441 Kazakhstan, Almaty442 USA, Delaware All Areas DE443 USA, Reno-Sparks NV444 Cyprus, All Areas445 USA, Sarasota FL446 Malaysia, Klang447 Burkina Faso, All Areas448 Estonia, All Areas448 USA, Milwaukee-Waukesha WI450 Spain, All Areas451 USA, Montana All Areas MT452 Togo, Lome453 Cote D'Ivoire, All Areas454 USA, Binghamton NY455 Malaysia, All Areas456 USA, Columbia SC457 South Africa, Johannesburg458 USA, Charleston WV459 China, Dalian460 Andorra, Andorra la Vella460 Sri Lanka, Colombo462 USA, Cape Coral-Fort Myers FL463 USA, York County PA464 Brazil, Fortaleza465 China, Tianjin466 Ukraine, Kiev466 USA, Plano TX468 USA, Wilmington NC468 Paraguay, Asuncion470 USA, Florida All Areas FL471 Kenya, All Areas472 Greece, Thessaloniki473 China, Guangzhou474 South Africa, Cape Town475 South Africa, Pretoria476 USA, Minnesota All Areas MN477 Korea Democratic Republic of, All Areas478 Mexico, Guadalajara478 Kiribati, South Tarawa480 USA, Atlanta GA481 Croatia, All Areas482 USA, South Carolina All Areas SC483 Russia, Samara483 Slovakia, Bratislava485 USA, Charleston SC486 USA, Arizona All Areas AZ487 Mexico, All Areas488 Costa Rica, All Areas489 Guatemala, All Areas490 USA, Bradenton FL491 Niger, All Areas491 Turkey, Istanbul491 Iraq, Baghdad494 Slovenia, All Areas495 Czech Republic, All Areas496 Greece, Athens497 USA, Colorado All Other Areas CO498 USA, New Mexico All Areas NM499 USA, West Virginia All Areas WV500 USA, Orlando FL501 Cambodia, Phnom Penh502 USA, South Dakota All Areas SD503 South Africa, Bloemfontein504 USA, Wisconsin All Areas WI505 Mauritania, Nouakchott506 USA, Fayetteville NC507 Belarus, All Areas508 USA, Davenport-Moline-Rock Is IA-IL509 USA, Rochester NY510 Mauritius, All Areas510 Lithuania, Vilnius512 USA, Gainesville FL513 USA, Jacksonville FL514 USA, Myrtle Beach SC515 USA, Asheville NC516 Turkey, Izmir517 USA, Fort Worth TX517 USA, Arlington TX519 Bolivia, La Paz520 USA, Wyoming All Areas WY521 USA, St. Louis MO522 Cameroon, Yaounde523 USA, Ohio All Areas OH524 Kazakhstan, All Areas525 USA, North Carolina All Areas NC526 USA, Illinois All Areas IL526 Turkey, Mersin528 USA, Charlotte NC529 USA, Virginia All Areas VA530 USA, Salt Lake City UT531 USA, Kennewick-Richland-Pasco WA532 Turkey, Adana533 USA, Pittsburgh PA534 USA, Hampton Roads-SE Virginia VA535 Russia, Yekaterinburg536 USA, Martinsburg-Berkeley County WV537 USA, Phoenix AZ538 Burundi, All Areas539 USA, Dallas TX540 Greece, All Areas541 USA, Spokane WA542 USA, Cincinnati OH543 Mongolia, All Areas544 Turkey, Konya545 USA, Green Bay WI546 USA, Columbus OH547 Kosovo, Pristina548 Iran, Tehran549 USA, North Dakota All Areas ND550 USA, Appleton WI551 USA, Detroit MI552 Turkey, Bursa553 Cameroon, All Areas554 Morocco, Fez555 USA, Erie PA556 Thailand, All Areas557 Latvia, Riga558 USA, Winston-Salem NC559 USA, Buffalo NY559 USA, Richmond VA561 Paraguay, All Areas562 Mexico, Puebla563 USA, Little Rock-North Little Rock AR564 USA, Cedar Rapids IA565 Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek566 Russia, Kaliningrad567 USA, Midland TX568 USA, Rockford IL568 Russia, Kazan570 USA, El Paso TX571 French Guiana, All Areas571 USA, Tucson AZ573 USA, Colorado Springs CO574 USA, Wichita KS574 Namibia, All Areas576 USA, Dayton OH577 USA, Greenville SC578 Mali, Bamako579 USA, Mobile AL580 Bolivia, All Areas581 USA, Savannah GA582 Cape Verde, Praia583 Lithuania, All Areas584 South Africa, All Areas584 USA, Utah All Areas UT586 USA, Georgia All Areas GA586 Botswana, Gaborone588 USA, Houston TX589 USA, Nebraska All Areas NE590 USA, Iowa All Areas IA591 Armenia, Yerevan592 Kiribati, All Areas593 USA, Austin TX594 USA, Kansas City MO595 Sri Lanka, All Areas596 USA, Montgomery AL597 USA, Evansville IN598 USA, Missouri All Areas MO599 USA, Tampa FL600 USA, Youngstown-Warren OH601 USA, Oklahoma City OK602 Russia, Omsk603 Guyana, Georgetown604 India, Mumbai605 Madagascar, All Areas606 USA, Chattanooga TN607 Slovakia, All Areas608 USA, Raleigh NC609 South Africa, Durban610 USA, Huntsville AL611 USA, Oklahoma All Areas OK612 USA, Corpus Christi TX613 Colombia, All Areas614 Kenya, Mombasa615 USA, Durham NC616 USA, Louisiana All Areas LA617 USA, Texas All Areas TX618 USA, Kansas All Areas KS619 Indonesia, Surabaya620 Honduras, Tegucigalpa621 Swaziland, Mbabane622 USA, Alabama All Areas AL623 USA, Lincoln NE624 Ecuador, Quito625 USA, Michigan All Areas MI626 Bangladesh, All Areas627 USA, Des Moines IA628 USA, Omaha NE629 USA, Boise ID630 USA, Baton Rouge LA631 USA, Clarksville TN632 Serbia, Belgrade633 Indonesia, Bali634 USA, Louisville KY635 Azerbaijan, Baku636 USA, Birmingham AL637 USA, Kentucky All Areas KY638 USA, Springfield MO639 Mauritius, Port Louis640 USA, South Bend IN641 Moldova, Chisinau642 USA, Indianapolis IN643 USA, Fayetteville AR644 Albania, Tirana645 USA, Arkansas All Areas AR646 Turkey, All Areas647 USA, Tulsa OK648 Turkey, Ankara649 El Salvador, San Salvador650 USA, Idaho All Areas ID651 USA, Brazoria County TX652 Uganda, All Areas653 Morocco, Rabat654 USA, Roanoke VA655 Latvia, All Areas656 USA, Tennessee All Areas TN657 Haiti, All Areas658 USA, Memphis TN659 Saudi Arabia, All Areas660 Montenegro, Podgorica661 Guyana, All Areas662 USA, Indiana All Areas IN663 USA, Murfreesboro-Smyrna TN664 India, New Delhi665 USA, Lexington KY666 USA, Knoxville TN667 South Africa, Port Elizabeth668 Cambodia, All Areas669 Namibia, Windhoek670 USA, Johnson City TN671 Botswana, All Areas672 Vietnam, Hanoi673 USA, Lubbock TX674 Kyrgyzstan, All Areas675 USA, Shreveport-Bossier City LA676 India, Kanpur677 USA, Augusta GA678 USA, Fort Smith AR679 USA, Fort Wayne-Allen County IN680 El Salvador, All Areas681 USA, Nashville-Franklin TN682 USA, Brownsville TX683 Yemen, Sanaa684 USA, Kalamazoo MI685 USA, Mississippi All Areas MS686 Macedonia, Skopje687 Kosovo, All Areas688 Hungary, Budapest689 Mali, All Areas690 USA, Amarillo TX691 Morocco, Marrakech691 India, Surat693 Vatican City, Vatican City694 Ukraine, All Areas695 Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City696 Iraq, All Areas697 Moldova, All Areas698 Indonesia, Bandung699 Armenia, All Areas700 Cape Verde, All Areas701 Swaziland, All Areas702 Georgia Republic of, Tbilisi703 Egypt, Gizeh704 Gambia, Banjul705 Nicaragua, Managua706 Mauritania, All Areas707 Philippines, All Areas708 India, Chennai709 Albania, All Areas710 Poland, Warsaw711 USA, San Antonio TX712 Montenegro, All Areas713 USA, Harlingen TX714 Azerbaijan, All Areas715 Pakistan, Lahore716 Cuba, Havana717 Pakistan, Karachi718 USA, Jackson MS719 Hungary, All Areas720 India, Jaipur721 Morocco, Casablanca722 Togo, All Areas723 Algeria, Algiers724 Yemen, All Areas725 Ecuador, All Areas726 Iran, All Areas727 Serbia, All Areas728 Rwanda, Kigali729 Venezuela, Caracas730 Pakistan, Islamabad731 Nepal, Kathmandu732 Nicaragua, All Areas733 USA, McAllen TX734 Honduras, All Areas735 Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo736 Afghanistan, Kabul737 Georgia Republic of, All Areas738 India, Bangalore739 India, Lucknow740 Egypt, Alexandria741 Egypt, Cairo742 Vietnam, All Areas743 Lesotho, Maseru744 Macedonia, All Areas745 Morocco, All Areas746 Cuba, All Areas747 Indonesia, Medan748 India, Pune749 Poland, Krakow750 Bulgaria, Sofia751 Bhutan, Thimphu752 Algeria, All Areas753 Poland, Lodz754 Poland, All Areas755 Gambia, All Areas756 India, Ahmedabad757 Afghanistan, All Areas758 India, Hyderabad759 India, All Areas760 Rwanda, All Areas761 India, Calcutta762 Bosnia and Herzegovina, All Areas763 Romania, Bucharest764 Tunisia, Tunis765 Indonesia, All Areas766 Lesotho, All Areas767 Egypt, All Areas768 Bulgaria, All Areas769 Tajikistan, Dushanbe770 Pakistan, All Areas771 Venezuela, All Areas772 Tonga, Nuku'Alofa773 Tunisia, All Areas774 Nepal, All Areas775 Bhutan, All Areas776 Romania, All Areas777 Tajikistan, All Areas778 Uzbekistan, All Areas779 Tonga, All Areas780 Uzbekistan, Tashkent
This article may be freely copied as long as reference is made to http://www.xpatulator.com/